BUKHARA PEARL OF THE EAST MOTHERLAND OF THE GREAT ABU ALI IBN SINO

For centuries, the territory of present-day Uzbekistan was a kind of bridge between the East and the West, between countries and peoples, the crossroads of caravan routes, a meeting place for languages, cultures and religions, and Central Asia has always been a junction where the largest cultures in the Asian continent . The Great Silk Road, which ran from Rome to China, was in its main segment in the hands of the peoples of Central Asia. This trans-Asian highway played a huge role in the interaction of artistic cultures of the East and the West. Moreover, in the center of this crossroad on the Great Silk Road stands the city of Buxoro-i Sharif - the pearl of the East, known in the Islamic world as the “prop of Islam”. It is an ancient and beautiful city, distinguished by its monuments and customs, being one of the most ancient cities of Central Asia and one of the greatest shopping centers on the Silk Road.


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In ancient times, Bukhara was part of the Sogd region (one of the historical regions of Central Asia). By the arrival of Alexander the Great, this city had a highly developed infrastructure. The center of ancient Bukhara was the Ark fortress. Behind the walls of the latter there was the city itself, called “Shahristan”. On the perimeter were located craft and trade estates "Rabad". The entire city, including estates, was defended by a defensive wall.

 

The history of Bukhara began long before the beginning of our era. According to archaeologists, its age reaches, and, perhaps, exceeds 2500 years. According to one of the legends, Siavush, who came from the royal family, founded the city. They allegedly built the Ark fortress on the territory of modern Bukhara.

 

Folk legends are usually in itself evidence of distant antiquity. One of these legends, recorded by the first historians of Bukhara, calls the builder of the Bukhara citadel, Siavush. In antiquity, the king of Turan Afrasiab killed Siavush, the son of an Iranian king and a Turkish woman. Narshahi (the ancient historian of Bukhara wrote “The History of Bukhara”) even cites the legend that Siavush is buried inside the kuhendiz (citadel) at the eastern gate. Bukhara Zaroastrians revered this place: on the day of Navruz (New Year), each man slaughtered a rooster, while expressing his sorrow at the murder of Siavush. Residents of Bukhara put down songs that were called “Cries of Mugs”.


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On the territory of Bukhara, merchants from China, Iran, India and other various countries were trading in about sixty caravanserais. The shrines of Islam were erected here, the greatest scholars, theologians and theologians lived and worked out - Sheikh Ahmad ibn al-Kabir al-Bukhari (born 769) - one of the largest theologians of the Muslim East, among whose famous students is Imam al-Bukhari. Imam al-Bukhari is the greatest Muslim scholar Mukhaddis (collector and researcher of Hadith) and mufassir (commentator on the Quran), Imam al-Mukhaddishin and Amir al-Muminin fi-l-Hadis. Ismail al-Bukhari is the greatest figure in Islam, a famous theologian of the 9th century who has been glorified in the Muslim world for more than 1200 years and whose works are part of the scientific thought and spiritual culture of modern civilization. He is the author of the Hadith Al-Jami as-sahih, which is the second Muslim book after the Koran.


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Sayf ad-Din Bokharzi (XXII century) also lived and worked in Bukhara - Shaikh-ul-olam was so called during his lifetime. He is known in the Muslim East as a Sufi sheikh, a mystic poet and theologian and, of course, Bohouddin Naqshband is the founder of the most significant Sufi order of Naqshbandiyya and which is known in the Islamic world as Khodzhai Buzurg and Shahi Naqshband, the majestic mausoleum of which is today highly esteemed for all Muslims of the world.

Bukharians also keep and take pride in such names as the historian Narshahi, the poets Rudaki, Dakiki, who glorified their city far beyond the borders of the East.

Moreover, Bukhara is a city-museum, in which you can see more than 140 architectural monuments of the middle Ages. The historic center of the city is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The uniqueness of the city lies in the fact that it still preserves in general the integral medieval city with its inherent buildings of architectural and historical type. The originality of architecture, as a clearly expressed artistic system, the resilience of its principles which found themselves in the continuity of architectural forms, as well as the breadth of ties with other leading art schools and trends in the middle, near and far east - these are its main features.

The formation of statehood proceeded in the regions of Central Asia in the II millennium BC. IX-XIII century - the period of emergence and development in the system of centralized states - the sultanates of the new art of the feudal trade and craft cities of the eastern Middle Ages, the ideology of which rushes into a single channel of Islam.


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Successes of construction art have caused a revolution in urban planning and architecture in the entire Middle East, and with them the flourishing of architectural decor. The figured brickwork became an art in which an exact calculation was combined with knowledge of the fundamentals of applied mathematics and geometry, and the eye and taste with practical skills and theoretical knowledge in the field of proportion. The best monument of this type of architectural decoration is the Samanid Mausoleum (IX-X c). A new aesthetic concept of architecture identified in Bukhara the style of architectural decor of the Samanid century as a new and progressive phenomenon. The most brilliant creations of the architectural decor of the 9th-12th centuries combined with bricks and carved elements are presented in the architectural complex Poi-Kalon with the Kalon minaret in the center. Sights such as the necropolis Chor-bakr, Kosh-Madrasa, Magoki-Attori, Chor-Minor, the outstanding architectural ensemble Lyabi-Hauz, whose name was given, located in the center of the houses constitute the pride of our city. In the ensemble, there are wonderful monuments of architecture of Kukeldash Madras, Khanaka and Divan-Begi Madrasa. Sitorai-Mohi-Khosa - the palace of the last emir of Bukhara, Alim Khan, is located in the outskirts of the city and is notable for its special beauty and elegance of buildings. The walls of the Arch - the ancient citadel, amazing quarters and narrow streets of the old city, where entire areas of ancient planning are preserved - have survived to the present day. It is not for nothing that historians say, “If you walk along the streets of the old city, it will seem that you are walking through the pages of history itself”.


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Sacred Bukhara - this is how the Uzbeks and the whole East call this glorious city respectfully. An ancient belief says a fertile light descends on all Muslim cities from the sky, and only above Bukhara, it rises to the sky. Bukhara is a city of poetry and fairy tales. Here, legends hover over the zigzags of street ribbons, here in the verticals of minarets - the flight of human genius, and every stone in the lace of masonry is covered with dust of eternity.

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A special place in the history of Bukhara is occupied by the name of Avicenna (Abu Ali ibn Sino), whose name is the state medical institute in the city. The great medieval encyclopedias Ibn Sino laid the philosophical foundations of the Renaissance culture in Central Asia and began to create the magnificent building of the poetic culture of the Eastern Renaissance. An invaluable contribution was made by Ibn Sina by the doctrine of man in the formation of humanism of the Renaissance: he developed a deeply original, corresponding to the spirit of his time, humanistic in its essence system of views on man, expanding the boundaries of speculation to consider the nature of man, the meaning of his life, his dream in the Universe, his role in society, thus substantially complementing and developing the Islamic concept of man.

 

Ibn Sino directed all his analytical mind, the fullness of knowledge, the breadth of interests, to selfless service to man; for him there was nothing higher than man and nothing more noble than to serve man. His real humanism was to give people happiness, deserve their love, point out ways to improve life, which is most relevant to this day.

 

The scientific heritage of Abu Ali ibn Sino is enormous and multifaceted: his works cover such areas of knowledge as philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, mineralogy, metaphysics, music, poetry.

 

The work that brought worldwide fame to the scientist is the “Canon of Medicine”, which includes information on pharmacology, detailed descriptions of human organs and the brain, symptoms and treatment of various diseases. It also contains numerous advice to doctors on surgery and therapy, herbal medicine, hygiene and recreational physical education. Translated into almost all languages, "Canon", until the XVII century was the main guide for physicians around the world.

 

Almost equally popular are his works The Book of Healing, which includes the Book of the Soul, the Book of Knowledge, as well as Instructions and Instructions, the result of his philosophical reflections.

 

Undoubtedly, there was not a single scholar of antiquity in the world who would have such a strong influence on the medicine and philosophy of the East, under the name of Abu Ali ibn Sino, and of the West, under the name of Avicenna, like this remarkable man.

 

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